"Take -1" is also pretty much not a good mechanic. It's there as debilities because, well heck, I don't really know, but as a player, when you say, "Take -1 in circumstance X," I hear, "Do not take action in circumstance X," and that isn't fun. Penalties decrease player involvement and cause disengagement and consequently create bored people. Not what you want.
Either just let it be a proper miss and the MC makes a hard move (which prompts the character for response, obviously) or invoke action under fire or just use a mechanic that isn't bad.