Heya, wightbred - we're working on a pretty significant restructuring of the combat moves.
Grab the latest copy of Dungeon World Hack here http://www.latorra.org/uploads/Dungeon-World-Hack.pdf
and take a look.
In a loose sense, here's some feedback on your questions.
1) It's a given that, in DW combat, damage is an ever-present danger. Every failed roll or choice made not to avoid it it becomes available for the GM to dole it out. If you're in a combat situation, damage is all around you.
2) Make a stand has been altered pretty significantly. I think the new version of DWH will clear some of this up for you.
3) We've left conditional environment hazards up to you. You may end up with a Dungeon Front describing the traps and dangers of the current adventure - if you do, you'll have ideas there to dole out appropriate damage. Generally, if it makes sense narratively, it'll make sense mechanically - just let the dice fall and rely on your GM (or your sense of fairness as one) to guide you in situations like this.
Damage comes from being in combat - whatever aspect of that damage (an ogres club, a nasty fall, a spikey pit) is going to be related to the move made and failed or the damage ignored.